The Centurion And Pais - His Beloved or Same Sex Lover
Modern Scholarship On The Meaning Of “Pais”
Centurion and Pais. Sir Kenneth J. Dover, (a heterosexual), former President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford University, and Chancellor of the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, from 1981 until his retirement in 2005 and noted authority on ancient Greece, in his book, Greek Homosexuality, tells us the younger partner in a homosexual relationship is called pais or paidika. This information impacts our Centurion and pais discussion.
“The pais in a homosexual relationship was often a youth who had attained full height.” p. 16.
“The Greeks often used the word paidika in the sense of ‘eromenos.’ ”[Meaning “the boy you are in love with]. p. 16.
Paidika is the diminutive of pais.
“The junior partner in homosexual eros is called pais (or of course, paidika) even when he has reached adult height and hair has begun to grow on his face.” p. 85.
Sir Kenneth Dover Is A Recognized Authority On Ancient Greek Language And Culture.
Sir Kenneth Dover, Noted Philologist and Greek scholar.
New York Times Book Review: “A landmark study... One cannot underestimate the importance of Mr. Dover's book. With philological brilliance and scholarly objectivity, he presents facts that can no longer be ignored.”
American Historical Review: ”Greek Homosexuality provides, finally, an unvarnished look at Athenian homosexuality... [It is] now the standard volume on the subject.”
New York Review of Books: “Dover's is an authoritative discussion; he is a philologist of great stature with wide achievement as editor, commentator, and literary critic... The subject was one which needed to be exposed to the light of day; we can be thankful that it has been done by a great scholar and one who treats the subject without prejudice.”
Dr. Robert Gagnon, Noted Evangelical Scholar And Leading Antigay Apologist On The Meaning Of “Pais”
Dr. Robert Gagnon, Pittsburg Theological Seminary.
Dr. Gagnon earned the B.A. degree from Dartmouth, the M.T.S. (Master of Theological Studies) from Harvard Divinity School and the Ph.D. (Magna Cum Laude) from Princeton Theological Seminary.
He is Associate Professor, with tenure, at Pittsburg Theological Seminary, teaching Greek and New Testament Exegesis. Dr. Gagnon wrote the leading antigay apologetic, The Bible And Homosexual Practice, 520pp, published in 2001.
A Roman Centurion
Dr. Gagnon, arguably the foremost anti-gay scholar of our day,
can refer to a partner in a homosexual relationship. Gagnon’s understanding of the meaning of pais
impacts our Centurion and pais discussion.
Dr. Gagnon writes:
“boy” (pais) could be used of any junior partner in a homosexual relationship, even one who was fullgrown.” Dr. Robert Gagnon, The Bible And Homosexual Practice, p. 163, footnote 6.
There is abundant historical evidence to support the assertions of Dr. Dover and Dr. Gagnon about the meaning of pais.
Dr. Gagnon certainly does not believe Matthew and Luke told the Centurion and pais story to legitimate gay relationships.
However, that Dr. Gagnon, the leading antigay apologist admits pais can describe a partner in a homosexual relationship is encouraging. At least he admits that linguistic fact.
For six hundred years before Matthew wrote his Gospel, Greek language and literature used pais to mean “a beloved lover” or “the younger partner in a same sex relationship.” That legitimates the probability that the Centurion and pais story deals with an ancient gay relationship which Jesus blessed.
First century Greek readers of Matthew’s Gospel would have picked up on the pais references which most twenty-first century English readers miss. Pais and paidika were used by writers in ancient times to refer to a lover (like the Centurion and pais story) in a homosexual relationship.
That is not the only meaning of pais but it is one of the possible meanings. According to Biblical Greek lexicons, pais also means "manservant, son, young man or maid," depending on context.
We have already noted that many ancient Greek writers, among them Thucydides, Eupolis, Aeschines, Plato, Callimanchus and Plutarch used pais or paidika in the sense of “beloved or same sex lover.”
Do Not Overlook The Cultural Setting In Which Pais Was Used.
The cultural and historical setting Matthew 8:5-13 and Luke 7:1-10 addressed when they tell the Centurion and pais story is vitally important. Both Matthew and Luke use the Greek word pais to describe the Centurion's relationship with his “servant.” They used the word pais at a time when that word had definite same sex meaning when used as they used it, to refer to the relationship between a Roman Centurion and his "beloved" servant.
Should we ignore their choice of words because it makes some Christians uncomfortable? Does understanding the common meaning of pais as “beloved or same sex lover” place the Centurion and pais story squarely in the cultural context Matthew and Luke addressed? Certainly it does.
Statue of Centurion on a horse.
Should we assume Matthew and Luke were unaware of the common sexual implication of using the word pais
when they wrote the Centurion and pais
That understanding does not make sense. It does make sense to explore the relevance of Matthew and Luke’s word choice in their Centurion and pais story, in the context of the cultural and historical setting in which it occurred.
The New Testament was written in the Roman Empire. The Romans occupied Israel at the time the Centurion and pais story occurred. Greek language and Roman and Greek cultural mores impacted the writing of the New Testament. Greek words like pais convey the flavor of Greek cultural influence. If Matthew and Luke intended to tell us the gay Centurion and pais story, we should at least be open to hearing that truth.
Because the Centurion used the word pais to describe the servant he so highly valued, because Jesus commended the faith of the Centurion and because Jesus did not condemn the sexual relationship implicit in the Centurion’s use of the word pais, one faithful scriptural understanding of Matthew 8 is that God can and does bless loving homosexual relationships which are within the Biblical moral framework - committed, faithful, non-cultic.
How does the ban on heterosexual marriage for serving Roman soldiers, instituted by Emperor Augustus before the birth of Christ, affect our understanding of this topic?
Bas Relief of a Roman Centurion, Colchester, England.
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